Best programming languages to learn 2022

What is Language?

A language is a form of communication in which people exchange ideas and opinions. For example, if we want to teach someone, we need a language that both communicators understand.

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is a type of computer language that programmers (developers) use to communicate with computers. It is a set of instructions written in any language (C, C++, Java, Python) to accomplish a specific task.

A programming language is primarily used to create desktop applications, websites, and mobile apps.

Types of programming language


There are three major categories of computer programming languages namely:

  • low level(Assembly, Machine code)
  • High level(Java, Haskell, Prolog, FORTRAN)
  • Mid-level (C, Assembly)

1. Low-level programming language

A low-level language is a computer language that is machine-dependent (0s and 1s). Programs written in low-level languages can be executed very quickly because the processor runs them directly without the need for a compiler or interpreter.

Low-level language is further separated into two categories:

i. Machine Language

Machine language is a form of low-level programming language. It is also known as object code or machine code. Because machine language is typically displayed in binary or hexadecimal form (base 16) form, it is simpler to read. Since computers can read machine language programs directly, there is no need for a translator to convert the programs.

Machine language has the benefit of allowing programmers to execute their code more quickly than they can using high-level programming languages.

ii. Assembly Language

Another form of the low-level programming language created for certain processors is assembly language (ASM). It gives the collection of directions in a symbolic and clear manner for humans to understand. The assembly language is transformed into machine language using an assembler.

Assembly language has the benefit of requiring less memory and less time to execute programs.

advantages of simple languages.

  • Direct communication with the hardware is taking place.
  • Since the code is ready to be executed by a processor, neither interpreters nor compilers are required.
  • greater memory and processing power utilization.
  • They offer straightforward storage and register manipulation.
  • Low-level programming languages enable quick and memory-efficient software development.

Disadvantages of low-level languages.

  • extremely challenging to create, read, debug, or maintain.
  • They are processor architecture-specific, so in order to write code for them, a programmer needs to have a thorough understanding of the relevant processor architecture.
  • One is exposed to a lot of blunders when coding in low-level languages.
  • Poor programming productivity stems from using low-level programming languages.
  • Low-level programs cannot be moved around.

2. High-level programming language

The high-level programming language (HLL) is made for creating user-friendly web pages and software applications. The program must be converted into machine code using a compiler or interpreter when using this programming language (execute the program).

A high-level language’s main benefit is that it is simple to read, write, and maintain.

Python, Java, JavaScript, PHP, C#, C++, Objective C, Cobol, Perl, Pascal, LISP, FORTRAN, and Swift are examples of high-level programming languages.

A high-level language is divided into three parts –

i. Procedural Oriented programming language

The procedure call notion is the foundation of the procedural-oriented programming (POP) language, which is descended from structured programming. It separates a program into discrete operations known as routines or functions.

A software developer will use a programming editor such as IDE, Adobe Dreamweaver, or Microsoft Visual Studio to write a program using a procedural-oriented programming language.

The POP language’s benefit is that it makes it easier for programmers to follow the logic of the program and allows for code reuse throughout the program.

The POP language’s benefit is that it makes it easier for programmers to follow the logic of the program and allows for code reuse throughout the program.

Example: C, Pascal, FORTRAN, Basic, etc.

ii. Object-Oriented Programming language

The foundation of the object-oriented programming (OOP) language is the objects. Programs in this programming language are broken down into discrete units called objects. It is used to include real-world concepts into the program, such as inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, etc., to make the program reusable, effective, and simple to use.

The fundamental benefit of object-oriented programming is that it is quicker and simpler to maintain, modify, and debug than other programming paradigms.

It should be noted that Object-Oriented Programming uses a bottom-up methodology.

Example: C++, Java, Python, etc.

iii. Natural language

Natural language is a component of many human languages, including English, Russian, German, and Japanese. Machines utilize it to comprehend, manipulate, and interpret spoken language from humans. Developers use it to carry out operations including topic segmentation, relationship extraction, named entity recognition (NER), automatic summarization, and translation.

The key benefit of using natural language is that it enables users to ask inquiries about any topic and receive an immediate response in a matter of seconds.

Advantages of advanced languages.

  • Simple to read, write, debug, and keep up with.
  • They can move about.
  • They can run on any type of processor architecture because they are machine independent, such as Java programs.
  • They are less likely to make mistakes; for instance, syntax highlighting and compilers make faults easier to find.
  • Higher-level programming languages produce better results.

Cons of high-level languages.

  • In comparison to low-level languages, they do not have good memory efficiency.
  • They require more stages to be completed before they can be carried out on a machine, making them slower.
  • They must be either compiled or interpreted, which takes more time.
  • They are unable to speak directly with the hardware.

3. Middle-level programming language

The low-level and high-level programming languages are separated by the middle-level programming language. Intermediate programming language is another name for it.

The benefits of middle-level programming are that it supports high-level programming features, it is a user-friendly language, and it is closely related to both machine language and human language.

Example: C, C++

What are the benefits of learning computer programming

After learning so much about programming, the crucial issue is: Why should you study computer programming? Let’s examine why:

  • Programming is enjoyable: You may develop your own video games, personal blog or profile page, social networking site like Facebook, a search engines like Google, or online store like Amazon using programming! What fun would that be? Imagine making your own game, uploading it to the Play Store, and seeing millions of downloads!
  • The foundation of a technology company: Huge computer programs created by a team of thousands of expert programmers serve as the foundation of today’s technology companies like Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, Amazon, and many others. Knowing programming can assist you in starting the next big tech firm if you have the necessary business sense.
  •  Pays well: Most places in the world pay their computer programmers quite well. Millionaire salaries are earned by top programmers in Silicon Valley each year. Many businesses offer starting wages of up to $100,000 annually.

Best Programming Languages To Learn

We are all aware of how much easier life is because of computer languages. At the moment, every industry—including those in education, healthcare, banking, and transportation—depends entirely on computer languages.

Numerous programming languages are used by various businesses, and they should all be learned. The most popular programming languages available for learning include:

1. Python

One of the most popular and user-friendly programming languages is Python. It was created in the 1990s and is an open-source, simple-to-learn programming language.


Due to its simple syntax, extensive library of standards and toolkits, and interoperability with other well-known programming languages like C and C++, Python is regarded as a programming language that is straightforward to learn. In fact, according to Gorton, it’s the first language that children in the Align program learn. “A lot of computer science fundamentals can be covered fast, and it’s quite simple to expand upon.” Python is a well-liked programming language, particularly among startups, hence it is in great demand.

It is primarily utilized in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and big data.


  • Python is simple to read, comprehend, and write.
  • It is compatible with C, C++, and Java, among other programming languages.
  • Python runs code line-by-line, making it simple for programmers to identify where an error occurred.
  • Since Python is platform-independent, programs written in it can be executed on any system.


  • Python is not a good choice for creating games and apps for mobile devices.
  • The interpreter and Python work together. It is slower than other programming languages like C and C++ because of this.

2. Java


Sun Microsystems created Java in 1995. It is an easy-to-use, safe, dependable, platform-neutral, high-level programming language. Oracle is now the owner of Java. It is mostly used to create desktop, online, Android, big data, the research community, and banking apps.


Large enterprises all over the world use client-server applications, with Java being the programming language most frequently connected with their creation. Because Java is intended to be a loosely connected programming language, applications created using it can run on any platform that does. Java is referred to as the “write once, run anywhere” programming language as a result.


  • In comparison to other programming languages, Java is simple to develop, compile, learn, and debug.
  • It offers the capability of running the same software across various platforms.
  • Because there is no concept of explicit pointers in Java, it is a very secure programming language.

It has the capacity to handle several jobs at once.


  • Compared to C or C++, Java uses more memory and executes programs more slowly.
  • There is no backup facility offered.

3. C

C is a well-liked, straightforward, and adaptable general-purpose programming language. It is created in 1972 by Dennis M. Ritchie at AT&T. It combines a high-level programming language with a low-level programming language. Applications like Text Editors, Compilers, Network Devices, and many more are designed using it.


According to Gorton, C, along with Python and Java, provides a “excellent foundation” for learning how to program. C, one of the first programming languages ever created, provided the framework for the creation of more contemporary languages like Python, Ruby, and PHP. Additionally, it is a simple language to test, maintain, and debug.


  • It’s simple to learn C.
  • It is a programming language that is quick, effective, portable, expandable, strong, and adaptable.
  • It is used to carry out intricate computations and processes, like MATLAB.

It offers dynamic memory allocation, which allows for run-time memory allocation.


  • Finding faults in programs written in the C programming language is exceedingly challenging.
  • The constructors, destructors, abstraction, polymorphism, encapsulation, and namespace ideas found in OOPs are not supported by C.

4. C++

One of the several programming languages we use to create software in C++. The C++ programming language was created in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup. Similar to the C programming language, but with several extra features including type checking, object-oriented programming, and exception handling.


As a C++ extension, C++ is useful for creating systems rather than individual apps. C++ is also effective for systems that support several platforms and devices. Programmers have created a sizable number of libraries and compilers for C++ over time. According to Gorton, knowing how to use these utilities successfully is just as crucial to comprehending a programming language as actually creating code.


  • A straightforward and adaptable structured programming language is C++.
  • It supports OOPs characteristics like inheritance, encapsulation, and abstraction.
  • It offers high-level abstraction, is practical for low-level programming languages, and is more effective for general-purpose applications.
  • The C language is more compatible with C++.


    Unlike other programming languages like Java or Python, the C++ language lacks security.
    Garbage collection is not supported by C++.
    Debugging large and complicated web apps is challenging.

5. C#

Modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language C# (pronounced “C sharp”) is utilized with XML-based Web services on the.NET platform. Its primary goal is to increase web application productivity. For users who are sufficiently versed in popular programming languages like C, C++, or Java, learning is simpler.


Microsoft created C# as a quicker and safer alternative to C. It is completely integrated with Microsoft’s.NET software framework, which facilitates the creation of mobile apps, browser add-ons, and Windows programs. Shared codebases, a sizable code library, and a wide range of data types are all provided by C#.


  • Windows is easily integrated with C#, a contemporary programming language that is type-safe, simple, quick, and open-source.
  • C# (C sharp) requires less maintenance than the C++ programming language.
  • Purely object-oriented programming is done in C#.
  • Strong memory backup functionality is built into C#. It stays away from the memory leaking issue as a result.


  • Because C# is entirely based on the Microsoft.Net framework, it is less flexible.
  • Multithreaded applications are challenging to create, comprehend, debug, and maintain in C#.

6. JavaScript

Both the client-side and the server-side can use the scripting language known as JavaScript. JavaScript was created in the 1990s for the web browser Netscape Navigator. It enables programmers to incorporate intricate features to bring online pages to life. It facilitates the development of dynamic websites, servers, mobile applications, animated images, games, and other things by programmers.


According to Gorton, JavaScript is the most widely used programming language for creating interactive websites. JavaScript can be used by programmers to create web content on the server before a page is transmitted to the browser when paired with Node.js. This allows them to create games and communication programs that run directly in the browser. The capability of JavaScript is expanded by a large range of add-ons.


  • JavaScript enables us to add interaction and behavior to web pages.
  • It can be applied to shorten server loading times.
  • It can produce engaging, dynamic websites and sophisticated user interfaces.
  • A straightforward, adaptable, and lightweight programming language is JavaScript.
  • JavaScript’s syntax is simple to comprehend.


  • JavaScript is entirely browser-based.
  • It is incompatible with multiple inheritances.
  • Compared to other programming languages, it is less secure.

7. PHP

Hypertext Preprocessor, or PHP. It is a robust server-side scripting language that is open-source and mostly used to build both static and dynamic websites. In 1994, Rasmus Laird created it. We can also write HTML, CSS, and JavaScript code inside of PHP. The.php file extension is used to save PHP files.


When a website often requests data from a server, server-side web development is where PHP is most usually employed. Being an established programming language, PHP benefits from a strong user community that has created frameworks, libraries, and automation tools to make the language more user-friendly. PHP code debugging is also easy.


  • A safer and simpler programming language is PHP.
  • Powerful online libraries are supported.
  • It is compatible with several different operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Mac.
  • It offers strong cloud service compatibility.


  • PHP is not suited for huge applications and is not able to manage a lot of apps.
  • It is very challenging to keep up.

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